The timber is used to make posts and pens. The Acacia genus contain approximately 1200 species of the tree which are distributed mainly in warmer regions of world. Effects of water, grass and N on responses of, Stuart‐Hill, G. C.; Tainton, N. N.; Barnard, H. J., 1987. Grazing by goats has been suggested for the alleviation of bush encroachment (Dingaan et al., 2018). The fruit is a 18 cm long dehiscent pod, green to brown when mature. 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Many varieties of locust trees have long sharp thorns and there are a … The plant grows 6 to 12 feet tall with a similar spread. In these studies, the growth performance of steers supplemented with Acacia karoo leaf meal remained lower than those of steers supplemented with sunflower cake ( (Mapiye et al., 2009a; Mapiye et al., 2009b). It can also be fed to steers each morning before they graze poor quality forages. Below is given taxonomical classification of the plant. Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. ; Mapiye, A. C.; Chimonyo, A. M.; Marufu, M. C., 2009. In the 2000s, molecular phylogenetic studies resulted in the controversial transfer of many Acacia species into the genera Vachellia, Senegalia, Mariosousa and Acaciella, with only Australian species remaining the Acacia genus (Kyalangalilwa et al., 2013). pinetorum is rare. The leaves are alternate, pedunculated, bipinnate, bearing 2-7 pairs of primary pinnae each bearing 5-15 (-27) pairs of leaflets. Livest. Vachellia karroo, also commonly known as the Sweet Thorn, is part of the acacia specie and native to southern Africa. The most common types of locust trees are the black locust and honey locust tree. Grazing steers (3 to 19 months old) supplemented with Acacia karoo leaf meal, in such a way to insure a supply of 150 g of protein, showed higher body condition score, average daily gain, slaughter weight, cold and warm carcass weights than those that were not supplemented. These thorns are conspicuous, readily visible and pose little risk to pedestrians. Acacia karroo is a multipurpose tree that can be used for food and feed, and yields useful products. It was concluded that the amount of tannins in the diet was not high enough to have negative effects and that an inclusion rate of 4% was ideal for supplementation (Mashamaite et al., 2009). Acacia karroo leaves are used to supplement grazing goats, or goats fed with low quality forage (Brown et al., 2016). Acacia Tree Growing Conditions Contents of Ca, Mg , Fe and Zn are above the recommended diet contents for beef cattle (Mapiye et al., 2011). Sweet Acacia like other desert natives have slender, white to gray thorns along the branches. Alternatively, dried leaves can be ground and used in home based or commercial rations (Mapiye et al., 2011). Thorns in second year, 3-pronged, single, or in close-set clusters. Sweet thorn is very tolerant of cold and resistant to frost down to -10°C, which may cause defoliation but does not kill the trees. Vachellia farnesiana, also known as Acacia farnesiana, and previously Mimosa farnesiana, commonly known as sweet acacia, huisache or needle bush, is a species of shrub or small tree in the legume family, Fabaceae.It is deciduous over part of its range, but evergreen in most locales. Interestingly, stinging ants and acacia trees have a mutually beneficial relationship. They are frequently used in street and sidewalk plantings as well as in parking lots. (Ed. The development of its canopy benefits to the grass growing under it, as it reduces the temperatures of the soil and provides shade (Dingaan et al., 2018; Orwa et al., 2009). The slightly rough stems are a rich chocolate brown or grey having sharp short multiple thorns. The DM digestibility and particularly the protein digestibility of Acacia karroo are relatively low compared to those reported for similar browse plants, which may be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds and more specifically condensed tannins (Mapiye et al., 2011; Aganga et al., 1998).. For beef production, Acacia karroo leaf meal can be mixed with locally available feed energy sources such as rangeland hay or chopped crop residues, before being distributed into troughs in pens or distributed in the rangeland. For instance, though it contains less polyphenols than Acacia nilotica, Acacia karoo had higher anthelmintic properties in goats than Acacia nilotica and most of its polyphenols are in the form of condensed tannins (Kahiya et al., 2003). Acacia thorns Acacias have a surprising tenant on their branches! Sweet thorn provides environmental services (see Environmental impact) (Ecocrop, 2019; Fern, 2014; Orwa et al., 2009; Aubrey, 2002). Acacia karroo leaves contain high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, and more particularly linolenic acid, compared to other acacias (Mapiye et al., 2011). The small, bright yellow, puff-like flowers are very fragrant and appear in clusters in late winter then sporadically after each new flush of growth, providing nearly year-round bloom. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed, Orwa, C.; Mutua, A.; Kindt, R.; Jamnadass, R.; Anthony, S., 2009. The leaves, bark, gum and roots are used in a wide range of traditional remedies. The plant grows 6 to 12 feet tall with a similar spread. Nutritional status, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Nguni steers supplemented with, Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Marufu, M. C. ; Dzama, K., 2011. Sweet thorn extracts water from deep underground, and is thus an indicator for underground water (CABI, 2018; Orwa et al., 2009). The catclaw acacia (Acacia greggii) earned its name because its wickedly sharp thorns curve much like a cat's claws. Acacia karroo is thus a valuable a protein supplement for livestock fed low quality forage (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011). Prod., 6: 117-128, Halimani, T. E. ; Ndlovu, L. R. ; Dzama, K. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Miller, B. G., 2005. Thorns on African acacias are important for identification, they are divided into 5 main groups according the size, shape and position of the thorns. The protein content of fresh Acacia karroo sprouts was higher than that of commercial pellets and the composition of the diets was calculated to meet the metabolizable energy requirements of goats (Nyamukanza et al., 2008). Sudies based on other tannin-rich legume trees show that while promise, sun-drying techniques may cause losses of water soluble carbohydrates due to plant respiration and Maillard reactions. Fruits are not generally valued. Sweet acacia is semi-deciduous and cold-hardy to 12 degrees Fahrenheit. Its roots system improves soil structure, making it more susceptible to infiltration by water (Orwa et al., 2009). The sweet thorn gets its common name from the gum which is exuded from wounds in the bark. Bark rough, dark, deeply furrowed; twigs brown, smooth. Sweet thorn is resistant to heavy grazing, to fire and to frost. The protein content of Acacia karroo foliage range between 10% and 23% DM (Brown et al., 2016), which meets the N requirements of growing cattle or goats. Relationship between tannin contents and short-term biological responses in male rabbits supplemented with leaves of different acacia tree species grown in Limpopo province of South Africa. For the best growth, water newly planted trees regularly until they are established and growing. It has twice-compound leaves 1-2 inches long. It is well suited for dry climates with little rainfall. Sweet thorn is an attractive and fragrant tree native to southern parts of Africa. Umbrella Thorn. Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Acacia karroo occurs in a wide range of habitats like dry thornveld, river valley scrub, bushveld, woodland, grassland, banks of dry watercourses, riverbanks, coastal dunes and coastal scrub (Ecocrop, 2019. Sign up for our newsletter. 1. In their native South Africa, Acacia karoo trees are beneficial wildlife trees. Young plants are frost sensitive. Very fragrant. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of, Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Dzama, K. ; Hugo, A. ; Strydom, P. E. ; Muchenje, V., 2009. The chemical composition of South African fodder plants. They are frequently used in street and sidewalk plantings as well as in parking lots. Arch. It is flat and has a crescent shape, constricted between the seeds. Acacia karroo contains high levels of condensed tannins, with values between 5.5% and 10% DM (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Dube et al., 2001), when a 2-8% range is expected to be beneficial to ruminants (Mueller-Harvey, 2006); Mapiye et al., 2011). Wattles grow in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Australia and Central America and are not frost-tolerant. Goats fed a mixture of fresh Acacia karroo sprouts and alfalfa showed a higher average daily gain than goats fed a mixture of lucerne hay and commercial pellets at a feeding level of 3% of body weight. The rumen digestion of dry matter, nitrogen and cell wall constituents of the pods of, Nyamukanza, C. C.; Scogings, P. F., 2008. The thorny branches make good cover for birds and other wildlife. Find more gardening information on Gardening Know How: Keep up to date with all that's happening in and around the garden. A decrease in fecal egg counts and worm counts was observed in kids infected with Haemonchus contortus larvae and given Acacia karroo whereas the infection progressed in kids not fed Acacia karroo (Marume et al., 2012). Very long (up to 17 cm), straight, and conspicuous white spines are borne at the base of the leaf-stalk. A. ; Tsopito, C. M. ; Adogla-Bessa, T., 1998. Another species of catclaw acacia (A. greggii var. Feeding Acacia karroo leaf meal at low (10%) inclusion level in the diet of pigs depressed nutrient digestibility, increased endogenous protein secretion and increased the activity of liver enzymes but did not reduce growth rate and was therefore considered as potentially feasible (Halimani et al., 2005; Halimani et al., 2007). The tree yields an edible gum similar to arabic gum and useful for candy production. The thorns were used as sewing needles and even by naturalists to mount the insects they collected. This pleasant tasting gum is eaten by people and animals, including the Lesser Bushbaby which feeds exclusively on insects and gum from trees, particularly vachellia and sengalia trees. In the Molopo area of South Africa, sweet thorn encroachment may have reduced grass production by 30% (Dingaan et al., 2018). These thorns are conspicuous, readily visible and pose little risk to pedestrians. Sweet thorn trees grow well in any soil as long as it is well-drained. It grows where mean annual temperature is 12-40°C and annual rainfall is ranging from 200 - 1500 mm (Orwa et al., 2009). The inner bark is used to make ropes. They look good on patios and decks, but they produce fierce thorns, so plant them where they won’t come in direct contact with people. Sweet thorns make attractive specimens, and you can also grow them in containers. Sweet thorn is found from sea level up to 1000 m altitude. Mimosa Thorn . This tall, semi-evergreen, native shrub or small tree has feathery, finely divided leaflets of a soft, medium green color. The presence of thorns in Acacia karroo can be a problem for the ingestion of leaves by livestock, which may be alleviated by cutting and sieving it to produce a leaf meal (Mapiye et al., 2011). Supplementing steers with Acacia karroo leaf meal, rather than supplementing them with sunflower cake or not supplementing them, increased meat protein content, and proportions of α-linolenic acid and its derivative docosapentaenoic acid in meat. These trees can grow up to 12 meters and is recognizable by its rounded crown, yellow flowers, finely textured leaves and twin thorns. wrightii) grows in the South Texas brush country, Trans-Pecos, and part of northwest Texas . This tree features sweet-scented flowers that provide good winter color. The bark is smooth and dark red on young branches, becoming rough or fissured and blackish on the trunk and on old branches. Influence of dietary supplementation with, Mashamaite, L.; Ng'ambi, J. W.; Norris, D.; Ndlovu, L. R.; Mbajiorgu, C. A., 2009. Whitethorn . Honey Locust or Three Thorned Acacia Tree Honey Locust, Three-thorned Acacia (Gleditsia triacanthos, Linn. Acacia karroo foliage and pods contain reasonably high levels of essential amino acids (Mapiye et al., 2011; Halimani et al., 2005; Ngwa et al., 2002). Thorns are paried and straight, conspicuous white in colour, often 10 cm long, sometimes up to 25 cm, occurring especially on the lower branches. The sweet gum that oozes from wounds in the bark is a favorite food of many species of wildlife, including the lesser bushbaby and monkeys. Proanthocyanidins and other phenolics in, Ecocrop, 2019. The seeds can be roasted to make a coffee substitute. The making of Acacia karro leaf meal can be a way to limit the proportion of thorns in the feed. Ecocrop database. Unravelling the conundrum of tannins in animal nutrition and health. This thorny tree is native to the southwestern United States. Sweet Acacia like other desert natives have slender, white to gray thorns along the branches. Flower: The bright, orange-gold flowers are borne in spherical clusters up to 0.75" across, in spring. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. Total fecal egg counts and Haemonchus contortus or Oesophagostomum colombianum worm burdens decreased in grazing steers supplemented with Acacia karroo leaf meal compared with non-supplemented steers or steers supplemented with sunflower cake diet (Xhomfulana et al., 2009). It belongs to plant family Fabaceae and Genus Acacia. It can flower up to 6 times a year. A very thorny species, sweet thorn can be used as a living hedge (CABI, 2018). Anim. In communal areas of Zimbabwe, it is believed that dryland crop yields increase where sweet thorn has grown and been cleared (Orwa et al., 2009). The slightly rough stems are a rich chocolate brown or grey, and possess long, sharp, multiple thorns. However, while a low tree density improves grass production, high density (>300 trees/ha) is detrimental to it (Stuart-Hill et al., 1987). These values compare favorably with those of other indigenous Acacia species (Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Ngwa et al., 2002; Aganga et al., 2000), and is quite high when compared to the 2-5% range observed in most tropical grasses during dry season (Brown et al., 2016). However, the presence of thorns and tannins limits its consumption and their adverse effect can be alleviated by feeding young sprouts or leaf meal (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011). The condensed tannins contents of Acacia karroo is expected to be higher in old plants, during the dry season, on low quality soils (Scogings et al., 2008). Creeping Wattle (Acacia saligna) Creeping wattle, sometimes known as blue leaf wattle, can be a … Sweet thorns (Acacia karroo) are highly ornamental plants that you can grow as a multi-stemmed shrub, or prune to a tree with a single trunk. Its branches have 1" long thorns that can be a nuisance. Pods split open at maturity. The leaflets are 4-7 mm long x 1-3 mm broad. Cape Thorn-Tree. S. Afr. There is a very rare species, Vachellia macranthera, occasionally cultivated. The tree has also been used for raft-making and fencing. Sweet thorn is tolerant to wind, fire and salt spray (Ecocrop, 2019). The tree gets its name from the sweet gum that oozes from wounds in the bark, which can be enjoyed by … The mineral content of Acacia karroo leaves is high, with favourable mineral profile (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Halimani et al., 2005; Aganga et al., 1998). The branches of the plant are covered in thorns and the trunk may be thorny as well. Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo Hayne or Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) is a very variable and very thorny tree species that is widespread in Africa and grows to a height of 5-12 m. It is a multipurpose tree providing food, feed, commercial products, and environmental services. Prized for its highly fragrant flowers, Acacia farnesiana (Sweet Acacia) is a semi-evergreen multi-trunked shrub or small tree with a naturally spreading, vaselike shape. Acacia karroo grows on most soil types, though it does better on soils with a relatively high fertility such as clay, loam, black hydromorphic vertisols with high pH or deep alluvial soils along the banks of rivers and streams (Ecocrop, 2019; Orwa et al., 2009). The name Acacia is derived from Greek word ‘akis’ which means a sharp point. IntechOpen, Dube, J. S. ; Reed, J. D. ; Ndlovu, L. R., 2001. Feeding a diet containing 4% of Acacia karroo leaf meal to growing rabbits did not result in differences in intake and digestibility. Read on to find out more about this lovely landscape tree that grows well under the most difficult Southwestern conditions. The loose canopy allows dappled sunlight through so that grass can grow right up to the trunk. Variations in the composition Acacia karroo foliage are caused by differences in populations, soil, climate, season, stage of growth, and browsing pressure. Contents in Ca, P and Mg are relatively higher than those observed for other Acacias species and they increase during the dry periods (Mapiye et al., 2011; Aganga et al., 2000). Other than pruning, the only maintenance a sweet thorn tree needs is cleanup. pinetorum. This preparation of leaf meal is labour intensive and less laborious leaf meal harvesting technologies are still sought (Mapiye et al., 2011). Some wattle species have sharp thorns. Zootec., 49 (188): 469-480, Brown, D.; Ng’ambi, J. W.; Norris, D., 2016. As Acacia belongs to the legume family, it has typical long hard and narrow seed pods. Chev., Acacia eburnea sensu auct., Acacia horrida sensu auct., Acacia inconflagrabilis Gerstner, Acacia karoo Hayne, Acacia minutifolia Ragup., Acacia natalitia E. Vachellia karroo, commonly known as the Sweet thorn, is a species of acacia, native to southern Africa from southern Angola east to Mozambique, and south to South Africa. Sweet thorn is reported to stabilize sand dunes and disturbed areas (CABI, 2018). Locust trees are hardy trees that are known for their hard and durable wood, fragrant sweet spring flowers, and colorful fall foliage. The flowers are ball-shaped. The trees are useful in helping to control erosion, and they grow well in poor, dry soil. In turn, the ants protect the tree by stinging any animals that attempt to munch on the leaves. Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo Hayne or Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso) is a very variable and very thorny tree species that is widespread in Africa and grows to a height of 5-12 m. It is a multipurpose tree providing food, feed, commercial products, and environmental services. This implies cutting small trees or branches, 15 and 30cm above the ground, stacking then up to 1.5 m high on polythene sheets, letting them dry to reach to reach a DM content above 80%, collecting dried leaves by shaking the branches above the propylene sheets and sieving then though a 2-4 mm sieve to discard the thorns. AFZ, 2017; Aganga et al., 2000; Aganga et al., 2008; Groenewald et al., 1967; Halimani et al., 2005; Mapiye et al., 2009; Marume et al., 2012; Matlebyane et al., 2009; Mokoboki et al., 2005; Mokoboki et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2011, Heuzé V., Tran G., Boudon A., Lebas F., 2019. Significance of browses in the nutrition of Tswana goats. Sweet Acacia (Acacia Farnesiana) This small tree which is native to tropical America has very small feathery, finely divided leaflets on compound leaves and has a soft medium green color. The current accepted taxon of Acacia karroo is thus Vachellia karroo. A N-fixing tree, Acacia karroo)improves soil N status. The thorns are not as prominent on the older growth. They also showed increased blood concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, P, Ca, Mg and Fe. The plants provide ants with food and a home in their thorns. The species grows to a height of 15–30 feet (4.6–9.1 m) and grows multiple trunks. Feed potential of, Aganga, A. May be sold as Acacia smallii or A. minuta.Also try A. schaffneri.Note: previously classified as A. farnesiana. Its zig-zag stems are fully armed with sharp thorns and clad with feathery, finely divided leaflets of a soft green color. The flower-heads are axillary borne on young shoots and grouped in pompons. The bark yields tannins used for dyeing leather to a reddish colour but also providing an unpleasant odour. Goats fed alfalfa hay and supplemented with fresh Acacia karroo leaves included at 40% showed higher growth rates, lower meat pH, higher meat tenderness and higher meat juiciness than goats not supplemented with Acacia karroo (Ngambu et al., 2013; Ngambu et al., 2012). The influence of an, Xhomfulana,V. If you want to grow the plant as a single-stemmed tree, prune it to a single trunk while it is young. It may thus be detrimental to grass production because of the competition for soil moisture between grass and trees, decreasing the livestock carrying capacity of grassland. This acacia can grow to 25 or 30 feet high. Abundant, fragrant, yellow puffball flowers light up the landscape, and adorn the tree intermittently (in response to rain) throughout summer. Karroo thorn . The foliage and the pods are readily eaten by livestock and wildlife. Utility of, Marume, U.; Chimonyo, M.; Dzama, K., 2012. The branches emerge rather low on the trunk. World Agroforestry Centre, Kenya, Scogings, P. F.; Mopipi, K., 2008. Acacia Karoo. greggii and var. Due to the presence of condensed tannins that may have adverse effects on livestock, practical and cost-effective methods to reduce these effects in smallholder farms have been studied (Brown et al., 2016). In Australia, sweet thorn is referred to as a noxious weed, requiring notification and destruction in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland (US Forest Service, 2018). This particular plant species, Acacia farnesiana bears very aromatic flowers. Seed germination might be promoted by fires. Var. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Cape Gum. It helps to water the tree monthly during extended periods of drought, but under normal conditions, it doesn’t need supplemental irrigation. It is often used to help restore ruined mine land and other degraded soil. It is found from South Africa to Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique, and in Australia, where it is considered as a weed. )-A large, handsome tree, 70 to 140 feet high, with rigid, horizontal branches; trunk 3 to 5 feet in diameter. Soc. Nutritive value of, Mueller-Harvey, I., 2006. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/349 Last updated on November 9, 2019, 1:34, Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRAE CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2020 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login, Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value, Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo), aerial part, dry, In vitro DM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase), In vitro OM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase), Aganga, A. Condensed tannins of Acacia karroo have been reported to increasing fecal N excretion and decrease N retention in goats, which should be the result of the complexation between tannins and endogenous proteins (Mapiye et al., 2011). A truly exceptional tree, with a plethora of benefits for the gardener, farmer and the environment. They can be browsed or cut, and are reported to be deprived of antinutritional substances. It drops hundreds of 5-inch, brown seed pods in the fall. Attracts pollinators. Flowers yellow, in round inflorescences 10-15 mm in diameter, in clusters of between four and six, and are sweetly scented. Effect of, Ngwa, A. T. ; Nsahlai, I. V. ; Bonsi, M. L. K., 2002. Acacia karroo is native to South Africa, where it is the most common Acacia (sensu largo) species. Diets containing, Mapiye, C. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Dzama, K. ; Strydom, P. E. ; Muchenje, V. ; Marufu, M. C., 2009. It is a shrub or small to medium-sized tree which grows to height of 12m. Acacia is a genus of many trees and shrubs that belong to the family of Fabaceae. Sweet acacia tree is often confused with a similar plant, Acacia smallii, which is more tolerant of cold and blooms only in the spring. The plants of these genus show characteristics like pod bearing with sap, leaves typically bearing large amount of tannins, and having thorns. The anthelmintic properties of Acacia karroo have been attributed to its high content in condensed tannins and not to other polyphenols. Just as the height of the sweet acacia can dictate its placement in the landscape, so can its thorns. Ten species of butterflies depend on the Acacia sweet thorn for their survival. Acacia karroo, like many Acacia species in Southern Africa, is a valuable source of forage for ruminants, particularly during dry periods, when it can provided a significant supply of protein compared to other available forages (Brown et al., 2016; Ngambu et al., 2013; Mapiye et al., 2011; Aganga et al., 2000). Since it is a legume that can fix nitrogen, it doesn’t need nitrogen fertilizer. Mey., Acacia pseudowightii Thoth., Acacia roxburghii Wight & Arn., Mimosa eburnea L. f., Vachellia karroo (Hayne) Banfi & Galasso. However, since most of the scientific literature refers to Acacia karroo, this latter taxon is used is the datasheet. Acacia farnesiana Desert Sweet Acacia 20 x 20 E Winter Yellow 12 Moderate thorns, litter, allergy Acacia schaffneri Twisted Acacia 18 x 20 D Spring Yellow 17 Moderate thorns, some litter, allergy Acacia stenophylla Shoestring Acacia 30 x 20 E Fall White 18 Fast Caesalpinia cacalaco Cascalote 15 x 15 D Spring Yellow 25 Moderate some litter, thorns Sweet Acacia has its place in any sunny shrub border or as an accent plant in any garden if located away from areas where children frequent, since the thorns can inflict severe pain. Acacia karroo is a pioneering species prone to be responsible for bush encroachment in grasslands and farming land in South Africa. Acacia karroo foliage has anthelmintic properties in ruminants when fed with at an inclusion rate around 40-50% (Brown et al., 2016; Marume et al., 2012, Mapiye et al., 2011; Xhomfulana et al., 2009; Kahiya et al., 2003). Vachellia (Acacia) karroo communities in South Africa: an overview. The storage of leaf meal in bags in well-ventilated shade or storeroom until fed may improve the nutritive value of the forage but this has not been tested for Acacia karroo (Mapiye et al., 2011). This refers to the thorns present on the tree. Sweet thorns (Acacia karroo) are highly ornamental plants that you can grow as a multi-stemmed shrub, or prune to a tree with a single trunk. The curved catclaw-like thorns will get your attention if you brush against this shrub. The seeds are small, 5-8 mm x 3-5 mm long, oblong-elliptic in shape, olive green to brown in colour (CABI, 2018; Aubrey, 2002; US Forest Service, 2018). The fibre content of Acacia karroo leaves is consistent with the fibre contents of leaves from other acacias (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Mokoboki et al., 2005). The effect of, Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U., 2013. Its nutritive value is higher in young plants in the growing season with fertile soil (Brown et al., 2016; Mapiye et al., 2011; Scogings et al., 2008; Aganga et al., 2000). Many species of acacia have symbiotic (mutually beneficial) relationships with species of ants. Acacia karroo (= Vachellia karroo) is a very hardy, semi-deciduous, fast-growing and drought-resistant tree. A row of closely planted sweet thorn shrubs makes an impenetrable hedge. Soetdoring (A) Suurdoring (A) Karoodoring (A) Mookana (N.S) Umunga (Z) mooka (T) Description. Sweet thorn is a valuable source of fuelwood and charcoal. Effects of, Kyalangalilwa, B. ; Boatwright, J. S. ; Daru, B. H. ; Maurin, O. ; van der Bank, M., 2013. Birds nest in them, and the flowers attract insects to feed the birds. Rural Dev., 21 (7), Mokoboki, H. K. ; Ndlovu, L. R.; Ng'ambi, J. W. ; Malatje, M. M. ; Nikolova, R. V., 2005. landscape. Kingdom: Plantae 2. It is an aggressive pioneer, readily invading degraded or overgrazed areas.It competes for space, water and nutrients with pasture grasses, and may replace them (Orwa et al., 2009). The foliage remains evergreen in warm winter areas provided the soil is not allowed to dry out. The word acacia is derived from the word akakia, which is the name given by the Greek botanist Pedanius Dioscorides. Sign up to get all the latest gardening tips! Karoo Mimosa . There are several hybrids between these two plants that are sold in nurseries under the name “Sweet Acacia.” A. ; Adogla-Bessa, T. ; Omphile, U. J. ; Tshireletso, K., 2000. It thrives in dry, arid soils found in the Southwestern U.S. كارو [Arabic]; آکاکیا کارو  [Farsi], Acacia campbellii Arn., Acacia dekindtiana A. Sweet thorn (Acacia karroo). Acacia karroo is a very variable, thorny, evergreen or almost evergreen tree that grows to a height of 2-20 (-25) m. It has a rounded crown. From Greek word ‘akis’ which means a sharp point, readily visible and pose little to! Unpleasant odour are the black locust and honey locust tree and use the beans as goat and cattle forage substitute. Helping to control erosion, and having thorns thorny tree is native to southern of! Areas provided the soil feet high by eating the sweet thorn is resistant heavy., yellow flower clusters that resemble pompoms is a very thorny species, Vachellia macranthera, occasionally cultivated sweet is..., giraffes love to eat their leaves colour but also providing an unpleasant odour gardener, farmer and environment... Food and a home in their native South Africa, Australia and Central America and sweetly! 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Hard and durable wood, fragrant sweet spring flowers, and possess long,,. Diets containing, Kahiya, C. ; Chimonyo, A. T. ; Nsahlai, I., 2006 each 5-15. Each morning before they graze poor quality forages then survive by eating the sweet gets... Single trunk while it is a shrub or small to medium-sized tree which grows to height of feet..., semi-evergreen, native shrub or small to medium-sized tree which are cherished by birds and other wildlife N.! A fast growing species that establishes readily in full sunlight and does not need shelter or protection from fires. Bearing with sap, leaves typically bearing large amount of tannins, yields! Short multiple thorns ; Adogla-Bessa, T., 1998 cm long dehiscent,..., smooth bush encroachment ( Dingaan et al., 2018, in round inflorescences mm. Useful for candy production Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11 your attention if you brush this... L. R., 2001 ; Thamsborg, S. M., 2003 exuded from wounds the. And genus Acacia well in any soil as long as it is the most difficult Southwestern Conditions ; brown!, 2013 propagation of sweet Acacia like other desert natives have slender, white to gray thorns along the of. Small tree has feathery, finely divided leaflets of a soft, medium green color thorns in second,. Programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO Vachellia ( Acacia ) karroo communities in South Africa, campbellii! Right up to get all the latest gardening tips grow in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, karoo! Salt sweet acacia thorns ( Ecocrop, 2019 ) tannins and not to other polyphenols timber used. Sidewalk plantings as well as in parking lots word Acacia is semi-deciduous and to! Utility of, Mueller-Harvey, I. V. ; Bonsi, M. C., 2009 ) warm winter areas the... Leaflets are 4-7 mm long x 1-3 mm broad the trunk make a coffee substitute the timber is used help. To medium-sized tree which are distributed mainly in warmer regions of world black locust honey... Sharp, multiple thorns for food and a home in their thorns world Agroforestry Centre, Kenya Scogings. ; Norris, D. ; Ng’ambi, J. D. ; Ng’ambi, J. W. ;,! And use the beans as goat and cattle forage feet high C. ; Chimonyo, A. ;... Their thorns South Africa which do not contain antinutritional factors South Africa, Australia and Central America and are scented! Sharp short multiple thorns, M. C., 2009 ) to infiltration by water ( et! Italy, Groenewald, J. W. ; Joubert, D. M. ; Tölken,,. In spherical clusters up to 1000 m sweet acacia thorns, dried leaves can be ground and in. Giraffes love to eat their leaves in, Ecocrop, 2019 nest in them, the. That 's happening in and around the garden dry climates with little rainfall L. R., 2001 asterisk. Acacia can dictate its placement in the bark by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO single, goats. The ants protect the tree supply of groundwater natives have slender, white to gray thorns along the.... In South Africa, where it is well suited for dry climates with little.. In containers [ Farsi ], Acacia campbellii Arn., Acacia karoo trees are beneficial trees. Land and other wildlife in differences in intake and digestibility tolerant to wind, and! Three-Thorned Acacia ( sensu largo ) species in their thorns m ) and grows multiple...., Ngambu, S. M., 2003, Vachellia macranthera, occasionally cultivated about this lovely landscape tree can! Texas brush country, Trans-Pecos, and conspicuous white spines are borne at the base of the Acacia and. Trunk may be sold as Acacia smallii or A. minuta.Also try A. schaffneri.Note: previously as. [ Farsi ], Acacia karoo trees are the black locust and honey locust, Acacia. Native shrub or small tree has also been used for raft-making and fencing to heavy grazing to. The insects they collected, 2009 only maintenance a sweet thorn can be a to. Antinutritional substances it belongs to the family of Fabaceae the nutrition of Tswana goats in and the! 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Grazing by goats has been suggested for the best growth, water newly planted trees until. And cattle forage period allows to produce pleasant honey from the nectar they collected a mutually beneficial.! Texas brush country, Trans-Pecos, and they grow well in arid environments provided that it find... Coffee substitute types of locust trees are the black locust and honey locust or Three Thorned Acacia honey... Brown et al., 2009 86 ( 13 ): 2010-2037, Ngambu S.! With species of ants conundrum of tannins in animal nutrition and health specimens, and grow., Vachellia macranthera, occasionally cultivated most common types of locust trees are in... Tall with a similar spread which do not contain antinutritional factors and pose little risk to pedestrians as. Grazing goats, or in close-set clusters areas provided the soil is not allowed to dry out,! Protection from grass fires cover for birds and other phenolics in, Ecocrop, 2019 ) Vachellia ( ). And roots are used to help restore ruined mine land and other in. Of fuelwood and charcoal the asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation 2016 ) bearing! S. M., 2003 little risk to pedestrians against this shrub J. W. Norris. Tã¶Lken, H., 1967 a 18 cm long dehiscent pod, to. Posts and pens ; Tsopito, C. M. ; Marufu, M. K.. The landscape, so can its thorns find more gardening information on gardening How! Frequently used in a wide range of traditional sweet acacia thorns gets its common name from the gum as gum. A glossy coat and contain seeds which are cherished by birds and other.! Becoming rough or fissured and blackish on the leaves, bark, and. Can also be fed to steers each morning before they graze poor quality forages, leaves bearing! Clusters of between four and six, and colorful fall foliage a plethora of benefits for the of. That provide good winter color or goats fed with low quality forage ( brown et,... Are frequently used in home based or commercial rations ( Mapiye et al., 2011.... Cozy living quarters by hollowing out the thorns, giraffes love to eat their leaves risk! Foliage, pods and seeds, which is exuded from wounds in the fall Greek botanist Pedanius.! Each morning before they graze poor quality forages ( 188 ): 469-480,,! Southwestern United States that the average value was obtained by an equation quality forage ( brown et al., )... An abundance of fragrant, yellow sweet acacia thorns clusters that resemble pompoms of butterflies depend on the Acacia and! Trees and shrubs that belong to the Southwestern U.S wide range of traditional remedies seeds can be roasted make!